INDIAN MONSOON SEASONS AND THEIR FEATURES: India has tropical monsoon type of climate. In this type of climate, winds blow in opposite directions in different seasons. Half of the year, the winds blow from south-west to north-east, and remaining half, they blow from north-east to south-west. In addition to this, geographically, India is situated both in tropical and temperature zone. The position of India distance from the sea, direction of the winds, mountain ranges, ocean currennts etc., influence the climate conditions of the country.
Indian climate is divided into four seasons :
- Summer season : March to May
- South-west Monsoon season : June to Septamber
- Retreating monsoon season : October to November
- Winter season : December to February
01 . Summer season :-
The summer season begins from the first week of March and it continues till the end of May. During this season, The sun’s rays are perpendicular in the Northern hemisphere. Hence the temperature is high. Days are long. The North-Indian plains are far away from the sea and have very high temperature.
Rajasthan’s Ganganagar records a maximum of 520 C in summer, and it is the hottest place in the country. In contrast, South India is surrounded by water on three sides and as such temperature is moderate between 320 C to 350 C. During this season, the North-Indian mountain regions and the peninsular plateau are cooler, Due to local temperature and winds, rainfall occurs at some places during April and may. These are called ‘Kala Baisakhi’ in West Bengal,”Andhis” in Uttar Pradesh,’coffee blossoms in Karnataka’ and ‘mango showers’ in Kerala. During summer, the country receives only 10% of annual rainfall. this the first season of Indian Monsoon seasons and their features.
02 . South-West Monsoon season ( Rainy season ) :-
In India, the South-West Monsoon comprise the rainy season. These are humid and cause rain fall to most parts of the country. This season spreads from June to September. 75% of the rainfall occurs during this season. South West Mansoon enter into India in two braches. The Arabian Sea brnch and the Bay of Bengal branch.
Monsoon winds are obstructed by the west of that Ghats and as such, maximum rainfall accure to the west of that Ghats. As these winds proceed to the east, they get depleted. The eastern regions of the Western Ghats are called rain-shadow regions. The Bay of Bengal monsoon winds bring rain to Myanmar, Bangladesh, North-Indian plains. The rain reduces from North east to North west. With the exception of the Tamilnadu region, most of the parts of the country receive rain during the South-West Monsoon. this the second season of Indian Monsoon seasons and their features.
03 . Retreating Monsoon :-
By the end of October, because of the Wide-spread South-West Monsoon rains, there is a decrease in vertically over the Southern hemisphere. As a result, there is a drop in the temperature in the Northern hemisphere. Hence this area becomes the area of high pressure and the South-West monsoon winds start receding. Slowly, they stop blowing by the end of November. This is called the receding Monsoon Period.
During this seasonn, India receives about 13% of the annual rainfall. Tropical cyclones frequently occur in the Bay of Bengal during this season. They cause widespread damage along their path, particularly along the east coast. this the third season of Indian Monsoon seasons and their features.
04 . Winter season :-
In India, the winter season begins from December and ends by February. During this season, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachala Pradesh and the North Indian plains witness very low temperature. In some places, the temperature drops to sub-zero level and heavy snowfall occurs, but in South India, temperature is normal and the climate rainfall during this season. Hence, the winter season is the season of least rainfall. this the fourth and Last season of Indian Monsoon seasons and their features.
Distribution of rainfall :-
Normally India receives most of its annual rainfall from South-West monsoon. There are a lot of variations in the intensity of rainfall. India receives its rainfall during all the seasons.
The country’s average rainfall is 118 cms. However, different regions receive rainfall during different seasons. Besides, total rainfall differs from one region to another. Based on the total quantum of rainfall, India can be divided into three regions namely
- Low rainfall region :-
Areas getting less than 50 cms of rain are called areas of deficit rainfall. Thar desert of Rajasthan and its adjoining areas like Punjab, Haryana, Kutch regions, Jammu and Kashmir, eastern parts of Maharashtra and interior Karnataka are the areas of deficit rainfall. Roylee of Jaisalmer district in Rajasthan is the area receiving least annual rainfall of 8.3 cms in the country.
- Moderate rainfall region :-
Areas getting rain fall between 50 and 250 cms, are called the areas of moderate rainfall. All areas other than less and heavy rainfall come under this region.
- Heavy rainfall region :-
Areas receiving more than 250 cms of rain are called areas of heavy rainfall. Weastern areas of Westrn Ghats, Assam and other eastern states and West Bengal come this category. Mawsynram in Meghalaya gets the highest rainfall in the country.
Climate conditions of a country has a great influence on its economy. The South-West monsoons control the agriculture of India, which is the main occupation of Indians. Failure of rainfall leads to drought. When the monsoon are heavy there are floods they also cause destruction to life and property.
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