In this article we read about Ancient civilization Of India. The ancient sites of Harappa were discovered witch was the first urban civilization.
Nomadic life becomes stable
Archaeologist have come across signs of huts and houses in some places. They have excavated a cellar in Burzahom in Kashmir. People of those times used to dig shallow pits in the soil and live in them. There used to be steps leading to the pits. These were built in this manner in order to provide protection from the cold weather and wild animals. Earthen pots have been found inside and outside such pits. In accordence to the weather condition, people cook food either inside or outside.
There is a site named Mehragarh near the fertile plain of Bolan pass which leads to Iran. The people of Mehragarh were the first ones to have learnt the cultivation of barley and wheat crops and the rearing of goat and sheep. This is the first village to have come to our notice. The people of Mehragarh lived in houses. Some houses had four or more rooms. Many sites have been discovered here which have not only the fossils of animals but also many graves. People and animals used to be buried together here.
The first urbanization:-
The ancient sites of Harappa were discovered by engineers when the railway lines were being laid 150 years ago in the Sindhu valley region of Punjab. They thought teht it was a mound made of excellent bricks. They utilized the bricks for the construction of railway lines. In this way, many houses which had been buried under the soil, were destroyed. Subsequently, Archaeologists took up research in this area. They were convinced that it was an ancient city. Since the sites around this city resembled the sites discovered earlier, they were called the Harappan Civilization. There cities are said to be 4600 years old.
The significance of the cities :-
We can see two or more than two parts in the cities of Harappa. The western part is narrow and at an elevated place. Archaelogists are of the view that this was a citadel. The eastern part is wide and at a low level. This area has been called the Lower town. Every part had a wall made of burnt bricks. Since the bricks were placed in an interlocking manner, the walls were very strong.
There were note worthy buldings inside the citadel. Mohanjodaro, one of the cities , had a swimming pool. Scholars have called this the Great Bath. It is biult of brick so as to prevent the seepage of water from the pool. The Bath has steps on two sides to go down, and has rooms all around. The water was prbably suplied to the bath by well, and the used water was let out. Probably very important people took bath in this pool on special occassions.
Fire alters have been discovered in other cities like Kalibangan and Lothal. Mohenjodaro, Harappa and Lothal. Hhad systematically constructed granaries.
ANCIENT CIVILIZATION OF INDIA
Town Planning :-
The lower town in the low lying area of the city was the place of habitation of the people. It was constructed in a very methodical manner. Systematically laid-out houses, roads and drains can be seen here. Almost every person lived in either one or two-storied house. The houses were built of brick and had strong walls. There were rooms all around the courtyard inside. The main door faced the street. None of the windowsw opened onto the streets. There were bathrooms in the houses. Some houses had wells which supplied water.
The cities had a neatly laid-out underground sewage system. The drains were built of brick and covered with stone slabs. The gutter of each house was linked to the main drain outside, and enabled the flow of diry water from the house to the main drain. Holes were created in the drains to enable timely cleaning of them.
Town Life :-
Other than houses obtained during excavation found objects of metals and precious gems. Most of objects found where beads and seals. The layout of the town reveals the existence of administrative class. The people of this place had used expensive metals,gems and jewellary. The beads were probably used by the common people. There is an unknown script on the seals. This reveals that there was no dearth of literate people. This enabled the engraving of scripts on thousands of seals.
The people of Harappan culture had dependfed on agriculture and trade. Wheat,barley,pulses and mustard were their main crops. They had learnt to grow cotton and weave cloth from it. We can say that they knew irrigation since many towns were situated on the banks of rivers. They had domesticated the humped bull, cow, buffalo, sheep, goat, dog and hen, and were engaged in cattle-rearing and poultry. Oxen were used to carry heavy loads. Trade and commerce had assumed primary importance along with agriculture. The towns carried on bussness with rural areas. Baichistan, Saurashtra and the Deccan were some of these areas. The seals obtained at Mesopotamia establish the fact that the Indus Valley Civilization had trade relation with it.
The decline of the towns :-
The administration in these places began to change some 4000 years ago. The walls of the Harappan fort were strengthened. Towards the final days of this town, its west gate was closed completely. The legal system of the towns came under a lot of pressure. The spacious rooms of Mohenjodaro became smaller. Huge buildings turned into huts. Neither town planning nor road planning was systematic at this time. ANCIENT CIVILIZATION OF INDIA
Historians have given various explanation for the decline of these towns. Rivers that dried and changed course are said to be the cause. Other historians have cited the destruction of forests as the cause. Probably inundation by floods could be the reason for the vanishing of forests. People living in Indus valley and some sits of West Punjab moght have deserted the area and migrated to new areas in the east and south. This civilization survived in Lothal town of Gujarat for the later years. The Indus valley civilization has remained a symbol of the pride of India and all our cultural roots.
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