THE FIRST WAR OF INDIAN INDEPENDENCE ( 1857 A.D.) The objective of expanding their rule in India. The British brought into force the Doctrine of Subsidiary Alliance and Doctrine of Lapse. Many provinces came into the control of the British because of these rules. It upset Indians. They were dissatisfied with the British administration too. This dissatisfaction surfaced as a major revolt in 1857. While some Indians called it ‘ The First war of Indian Independence 1875 A D
Causes for the first War of Indian Independence 1857 A.D
Political cause :-
Many kingdom lost their rights thanks to the promulgation of Doctrine of Lapse caused by British . Satara Jaipur, Jhansi, Udaipur and other kingdoms came under British control. Dalhousie cancelled the princely titles of the Nawabs of Tanjore and Carnatic kingdoms. The Moghul sultans, the Nawab of Oudh and other kings were tripped of their kingly status. Consequently, thousands of soldiers who were hooked in to these kings, became unemployed. This became a robust cause for the protest of 1857 against British .
Economic cause of First War Of Indian incandescence 1857 A.D. :-
Thanks to the economic revolution in England, Indian handicrafts and cottage industries suffered heavily. England, rather than being a trading country, became a hub of industries. The Indian craftsmen became unemployed. Primarily, the textile and wool industreis too suffered a death blow.
British imposed havy tax, on the sale of indian goods in England. due to the zamindari system, the landlords, acting as commision agents between the govt and therefore the farmers, exploited the farmers. the proper given to the taluks to gather tax was withdrawn. An ‘Inam Commission’ was appointed and every one the gifted lands (‘Inam lands’) were taken back. thanks to this, the farmers felt humiliated and suffered financial misery. Thus too led to the revolt of farmers against the govt .
Administrative cause :-
British broght into force new civil and criminal laws. These were applicable only to Indians. English became the language of the courts. Most of the time British judges favoured British . The new rules weren’t understood by the folk .
Military cause :-
The condition of the Indian soldiers within the British army was pathetic. The status, sallary and opportunities for promotion that British soldiers enjoyed weren’t given to Indian soldiers. The religious sentiments of the Indian soldiers were hurt once they were forced to cross the oceans to serve on foreign lands.
Eruption of the Revolt :-
Most of the Indian soldiers within the British army believed that if they fought together, they might chase away British from India. At that point , the soldiers, were being given new rifles called ‘Royal Enfield’. A rumour spread among the soldiers that the cartridges utilized in these rifles were greased with the fat of cow and pigs. While cows were sacred to Hindus, pigs were blasphemous for Muslims. This incident became the immediate cause for the revolt.
The rumour that spread within the army troops at Barackpur led to severe dissatisfaction. When British officers ordered the Indian soldiers to tug the security catch with the assistance of their superiors. At this juncture, an indian soldier named Mangal Pandey killed a British official. Subsequetly, he was arrested, tried and hanged.
Meerut was a robust military base of British . When British ordered the Indian soldiers to use the greased cartridges, the soldiers refused to hold out the order. The soldiers were imprisoned. As a result, there was a revolt in Meerut.
Indian soldiers rushed into the prison and released the soldiers jailed there. This became the spark that led to the hearth of the War of Independence. Later, the group of soldiers visited Delhi from Meerut.
They laid siege on nthe Red Fort and declared the Moghaul king. Bahadur Shah II Enperor of India. Consequently, the protest became serious, it spread like wild fire to Kanpur and Jhansi.
In Kanpur, Nana Saheb rose in protest. Thathya Tope was his assistant . In Jhansi, a revolt happened under the leadership of Queen Laxmibai. When Kanpur fell into the hands of British , Thathya Tope came to Jhansi to assist the Queen.
Jhansi Rani Laxmibai :-
The heat of the revolt was felt in Lucknow too. Ultimately, Lucknow was appropriated by British . The war spread to the south of river Yamuna. As a result, the soldiers in Jhansi felt encouraged.
Jhansi Rani Laxmibai who was enraged by the Doctrine of Laapse, declared war against British . She tied her adopted son to her back and fought within the war. She happened again with British , the Queen laid down her life. Even today, the queen occupies a pride of place within the history of the independence struggle.
Reasons for failure of the revolt :-
the primary war of Independence of 1857 failed thanks to various reasons. The movement didn’t spread to the entire country. This struggle was intended to guard the interest of a couple of instead of getting freedom for the country. rather than being an or ganized struggle, it erupted thanks to certain unexpected reasons.
The unity among British forces and lack of it among the Indian soldiers also led to the failure. The people lost confidence within the soldiers thanks to their arson and looting. that’s way The First war of Indian Independence 1857 A D was unsuccessful.
Effects of the revolt :-
The liberty struggle put an end to the administration of the Malay Archipelago Company, and therefore the administration was appropriated by the Queen of England. The administrative responsibility was handed over to the Secretary of India Affairs within the British Parliament .
In 1858, the Queen of England made an announcement. This declaration has been called India’s ‘Magna Carta’. the subsequent points were included in it
- The agreements made by the Malay Archipelago Company with the kings were accepted.
- Anbitiuos expansion plans had to tend up.
- A stable government had to be provided to India.
- There would be equality under law.
- The government would exhibit religious tolerance and not interfere in religious matters of the country.
The British realized that peaceful rule was not possible without support, trust and confidence of the Indian people. This gives new route to the Indian freedom movement. Indians realized the inevitability of finding alternative routes to obtain freedom from the British.
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